Creative Agency: The Politics and Tactics of Modern Youth Movements

Thursday, February 5, 2015
12:30pm – 1:45pm
Race Conference Room, Lavin-Bernick Center (LBC)
Moderated by: Dr. David Ortiz, Department of Sociology, Tulane University

Formação de Agentes Culturais da Juventude Negra em Minas Gerais
Kelly Cardozo, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais

A abordagem da emancipação como condição essencial à preservação e expressão da identidade cultural tem sido uma discussão ativa nos movimentos socioculturais no Brasil nos últimos anos. A motivação pelo debate tem sido relevante principalmente entre a juventude negra brasileira devido ao alto índice de violência e a ausência de sentimento de pertencimento e cidadania. Portanto, esta comunicação é pautada no Núcleo de Formação de Agentes Culturais da Juventude Negra – NUFAC-MG, com objetivo de dialogar ferramentas de emancipação como forma de suportar o resgate da expressão de identidade do indivíduo e de como essas ferramentas contribuem para transformar a comunidade local. Para tanto, utilizou-se o processo de formação na área cultural através de cursos de qualificação profissional para jovens em cinco cidades de Minas Gerais, Brasil. A implantação do Núcleo teve, também, o objetivo de cumprir as diretrizes formuladas pelo Fórum Nacional dos Direitos da Cidadania e a Fundação Cultural Palmares (idealizadora e financiadora), sendo executado pelo Instituto de Desenvolvimento Sustentável – IEDS e a Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais – UFMG. Os cursos buscaram o fortalecimento da identidade negra dos jovens, através de metodologia “Perspectiva sócio construtivista importante que as experiências dos alunos na escola estão conectados com o mundo fora da sala de aula” (Santrock, 2011). Com a duração de 10 meses, aulas específicas, práticas e visitas técnicas interativas, além de abordar a temática étnico-racial como expressão de identidade. O projeto contribuiu para o desenvolvimento da consciência crítica, e ampliar o debate sobre a inclusão do negro e suas manifestações nas esferas político-econômico e social. Os resultados alcançados foram, a inserção desses jovens ao mercado de trabalho, através construção de parcerias envolvendo todos os stakeholders, além de estimular a continuidade da formação em diferentes níveis. E a criação de uma instituição Não-governamental pelos alunos para multiplicação das habilidades adquiridas.

Juventudes e contemporaneidade: As mídias sociais como nova forma de manejo da sociabilidade
Aline Corrêa Maia Lima, Pontifícia Católica do Rio de Janeiro

Em tempos de mudanças políticas, econômicas e socioculturais aceleradas, são muitas – e também voláteis – as possibilidades apresentadas aos sujeitos. A valorização do imediato e a ética da experimentação parecem ser as norteadoras da contemporaneidade. Instituições que por muito tempo pautaram quase que exclusivamente a produção de subjetividades – como a Igreja e os partidos – já não detêm mais poder absoluto, caindo no descrédito para uma gama imensa de indivíduos cada vez mais submersos em uma cultura do consumo. Nas relações interpessoais, pesa o avanço da tecnologia, que tem proporcionado, crescentemente, a conexão entre sujeitos geograficamente dispersos. Situado em uma encruzilhada de componentes numerosos de subjetividade, caberia ao próprio indivíduo o desejo e a ação para subverter sistemas opressivos dominantes. É nesse cenário que podem despontar pequenas movimentações revolucionárias capazes de despertar processos de sensibilidade inteiramente novos. Um estilo de dança, enquanto arte e campo criador, potencialmente goza da possibilidade de provocar mutações subjetivas, rompendo situações paralisantes e reivindicando um reconhecimento que passará pela via estética.
Neste contexto, nossa proposta é refletir sobre uma manifestação artística e corporal criada por jovens de favelas da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil: o passinho. A dança, que mistura movimentos do funk, frevo, samba e hip hop, surgiu em 2001 e ultrapassou os limites da periferia, inicialmente, via internet, levando-nos a pensar as mídias sociais como nova forma de manejo da sociabilidade. Nosso objetivo é pensar a emergência de distintas sensibilidades influenciadas por recentes modelos de comunicação introduzidos por tecnologias propulsoras de um novo protagonismo cultural nas favelas cariocas. Em uma sociedade onde o jovem possui mais oportunidade de alcançar a educação e a informação, porém muito menos acesso ao emprego e ao poder, o mundo audiovisual e da tecnologia acaba por se estabelecer como lugar de acesso ao repertório de grupos de referência.

Cultural Engagement and Social Integration with Marginalized Youth- A Case Study of Creative Políticas de Niñez

Carly Offidani-Bertrand, University of Chicago

An emerging network of Argentine civil associations serves as one of the most simultaneously vulnerable and feared populations: los/as chicos/as en situación de calle (“street children”). A burgeoning dialogue of post-dictatorship human rights, along with the national ratification of the United Nation’s Declaration of the Rights of the Child, fuels increased funding to programs that strengthen community ties through national identity under the promotion of patrimonio cultural. The legal and social particulars of cultural centers that serve as casas de día (and sometimes as casas de noche) differ according to local variations by province and municipality. I conducted field research in the municipality of Morón, an area known for its progressive politics and supported by the new populist party, Nuevo Encuentro. Using semi-structured interviews and ethnographic field notes, I explore the experiences of participants and employees in one government run cultural center, La Casa de la Juventud. La Casa de la Juventud uses an outreach approach- treating street children as results of poverty instead of threats to stability – and works to empower these young individuals by building their self-confidence and resilience. This style of program is unique in its practice of treating children as participating members of their artistic and cultural community. I examine how employees who provide services and teach classes within the cultural center understand and communicate children’s rights, and how this militancia cultural (“cultural activism”) is closely tied to historical memories focusing on the role of youth activism and its repression during the dictatorship. In addition, I examine how the youth participants of these centers understand and reappropriate this dialogue of rights, and how this influences their ability to cope with the stresses and hardships associated with life on the street.

Identity in Art: Constructions and Negotiations of Race

Friday, February 6, 2015
10:30am – 11:45am
Rechler Conference Room, Lavin-Bernick Center (LBC)
Moderated by: Dr. Mia Bagneris, Department of Art History, Tulane University

The Other Shore: reviewing the exodus of Cuban visual artist within the Mariel boatlift
Jimena Codina, Tulane University

In 1980, between the months of April and October, about 125,000 Cubans emigrated legally from Cuba to the United States through the port of Mariel. This event impacted not only the history of Cuba but also the history of Cuban immigration, and the relations between the United States and the island. Among the thousands of Cubans who emigrated, many were artists: writers, musicians, and visual artists (mainly painters). Some of these visual artists became visible in the context of galleries, art exhibitions and journals in the United States, specifically in Miami. Despite the differences in the background and scope of these artists, and despite the contrasts in their respective careers once they emigrated to the United States, they were bound together by the common experience of immigration to the U.S. through Mariel, they all came to form the Generation of Mariel, and this, in turn, impacted the content of their work and their artistic career. Considering the processes and effects of the Mariel boat-lift on the Cuban artist community will help to understand better the intersection of grand historical processes and the production of culture, and how these artists negotiate both the grand historical narratives and their own migratory experiences through their work.

100 Years of Lies: Images of Brazil’s Unified Black Movement
Briana Royster, Ohio University

Using posters created by Afro-Brazilian activists in 1988, this presentation will provide a preliminary investigation into the U.S. influences on the Unified Black Movement (MNU), while revealing Brazil’s unique history of race relations and how activists captured that history within its political posters. Scholars have studied the U.S. Civil Rights Movement from many perspectives, including its leaders, the role of women and students, and its place as a catalyst for later movements in the U.S. like the Women’s Rights Movement and the Chicano Movement. Less studied are the transnational effects of the Civil Rights Movement in other countries such as Brazil. Brazil and the United States have a history of cross-cultural exchange, one that includes the social and political movements of people of African descent. African American activists in the United States were one inspiration for the Unified Black Movement (MNU) during the last quarter of the twentieth century in Brazil. Brazil’s contemporary black movement began in the 1970s in an effort to end the myth of Brazil as a “racial democracy.” A key component to the MNU’s strategy involved visually representing the importance of black heritage and culture. With a reliance on their rich African history and images from the US Black Power Movement, Afro-Brazilian activists created posters and artwork to foster a consciousness about the racial problems in Brazil. Although motivated by what they saw in the United States, activists also remained aware of many other movements, including African independence movements. The MNU developed an artistic campaign unique to Brazil’s history of racial hegemony and worked diligently to improve the conditions of Afro-Brazilians. Using interviews and artwork (mostly in the form of posters) this presentation will elaborate on the similarities and differences between the two sets of images, giving rise to an analysis of the movements themselves.

Dissecting Identity through Dissolution: Guillermo Gomez-Pena and the Performance of the Poetic Overstatement
Alexandra Santana, Tulane University

The purpose of this project is to examine how contemporary performance artist Guillermo Gómez-Peña uses a mixture of invented language and aesthetic media as deconstructive instruments in his artwork in order to question rigid notions of social identity. The project is also an examination of his use of the internet as an aesthetic medium, both literally and figuratively, in his performances. The use of the non-identity (or anonymity) of a digitized subject in his work allows for a more reflective examination of subaltern and marginalized social identities, and thus provides a possible space for the mobilization of marginalized artistic audiences. More specifically, however, I question if the conceptual fracture of social identity through digital means truly attempts to “fight against cultural, artistic, and political isolationism”? (La Pocha Nostra) Through a formal analysis of several key performances, I argue that Guillermo Gómez-Peña’s use of an imagined, yet recognizable poetic cyberlanguage dissolves the borders, both physical and intangible, between traditional boundaries of cyberculture and social identity.

Splintered Consciousness: Literary Relationship between Self and Nation

Friday, February 6, 2015
12:00pm – 1:15pm
Race Conference Room 202, Lavin-Bernick Center (LBC)
Moderated by: Dr. Fernando Rivera, Department of Spanish and Portuguese, Tulane University

Secondary Characters and the Politics of Personal Memory in the Southern Cone Post-dictatorship Generation Novel
Sarah Bruni, Tulane University

As the first generation of authors who came of age after the dictatorship years of the 1970s and ’80s in the Southern Cone begin publishing works of literature that engage directly with questions of how we remember and process the period of state violence and repression that casts its long shadow on the present, it is increasingly necessary to interrogate how the narrative techniques they employ to depict the postdictatorial environment are correlated with a culture of forgetting that fragments and obscures sites of memory and the history they conjure up. With the transition into democracy, neoliberal policies swept under the rug any lingering signs of former state repression including the repurposing of sites of memory within the urban spaces where human rights atrocities occurred. Unlike the authors producing literature in the immediate aftermath of the dictatorships, those who were children during the period of state violence in their respective countries must rely more readily on formative experience and social memory to conjure a period of time that governments have striven to erase from public consciousness. The aims of this paper, then, are twofold: I propose to examine the way that such policies of forgetting have fragmented the urban landscape in which many of these writers have grown up, and then analyze the way that a new generation of authors’ narratives respond to this fragmentation. I will take as one of my key case studies of revisions of public space Punta Carretas prison in Montevideo, Uruguay, which was repurposed as Punta Carretas shopping mall in 1994. The key literary texts I will explore include Alejandro Zambra’s (Chile, b. 1975) Formas de volver a casa, and Patricio Pron’s (Argentina, b. 1975) El espíritu de mis padres sigue subiendo en la lluvia, both published in 2011.

The Afro-Caribbean Family, Citizen Consciousness and the Nation-State in Earl Lovelace’s While Gods Are Falling
Cherif Diatta, Tulane University

Early narratives among Afro-Caribbean writers have emphasized the tribulations in the establishment of contemporary Afro-Caribbean communities. Earl Lovelace’s fiction is not an exception. This paper examines the portrayal an Afro-Caribbean community and its significance in Earl Lovelace’s first novel, While Gods Are Falling. The novel explores the interconnected relationship between the individual, the family, the community and the nation-state. I argue that Lovelace’s focus on the Afro-Trinidadian family and community expresses the reality of the Trinidadian political landscape, and emphasizes the paramount necessity of the individual’s sense of responsibility in his community that I call citizen consciousness. The analysis demonstrates how, through the portrayal of Afro-Caribbean family, Lovelace illustrates the emergence and evolution of the People’s National Movement (PNM) and the implication of black political leadership implications in Trinidad and the Caribbean in general. The analysis most fundamentally examines the significance of the individual’s responsibility and participation in the community as citizen consciousness. The concept of citizenship and good citizen has been built around property ownership, class status, social freedom, judicial and administrative responsibilities, and suffrage. In the fiction of Lovelace, the notion of citizen implicates more than these criteria that reinforce class segregation and exclude some human categories. For Lovelace, indeed, citizenship necessitates will, acceptance and desire of belonging to the community or nation as well awareness of both one’s rights and duties.

Revolutionary Fictions: A Critical Reading of the Zapatista Short Story Series Don Durito de la Lacandona
Mark Fitzsimmons, Indiana University

“Since its official inception when it boldly introduced itself to the world on 1 January 1994, the Zapatista Army of National Liberation (EZLN) has been heavily defined and characterized by its diverse wealth of written texts. The EZLN is peculiar, and perhaps unique, among Latin American insurgent revolutionary groups in the 20th and 21st centuries in the central role that written texts have played not only in defining critical moments in their movement, but also in gaining an international base of support, sympathy, and solidarity. The texts produced by the EZLN occupy a broad range of styles and genres, from explicitly subversive political writings that seem modeled after the manifesto genre to highly literary short fiction and poetry. As an insurgent guerrilla organization that has openly declared war on the Mexican national government, the centrality of original literary production to the EZLN may appear confounding or even counterintuitive. The Zapatista movement, however, has consistently and decidedly fought as much if not more a battle of ideological and discursive reappropriation than of armed conflict.  In this paper, I analyze the series of short tales that focus on the fictional scarab beetle Don Durito de la Lacandona and the fictionalized autobiographical portrayal of Marcos. I argue that these stories are as subversive in their content and ideas as in their form, style, and aesthetics. In large part precisely because of their literary form and aesthetics, they form a fundamental part of what the EZLN has established as an alternative political voice in a national and global dialogue that continually marginalizes alternative discourses and rhetorical forms.”

Changó el gran putas de Zapata Olivella: la irrupción de una raza y su cultura en el debate cultural hispánico

Antonio Jimenez Morato, Tulane University

Desde la sugerencia de llevar africanos a América para librar de las tareas pesadas a los indígenas de fray Bartolomé de las Casas, y su posterior arrepentimiento que no suele ser recordado con la misma frecuencia, no hay apenas documentos literarios que giren en torno a la «cuestión negra» en la cultura hispanoamericana. Sorprende frente a la profusión de textos existentes relacionados con la «cuestión india». Manuel Zapata Olivella, afrocolombiano, reparó en ese vacío y desarrolló una labor antropológica a lo largo de las décadas centrales del siglo XX que se ve plasmada en su monumental novela Changó el gran putas, publicada en 1983. Allí se lanza a la ambiciosa tarea de 1) esbozar una mitología para la población negra de las Américas, 2) trazar una historia alternativa a la oficial desde su cosmovisión y costumbres y, 3) visibilizar la cultura negra en la literatura hispanoamericana donde había sido silenciada desde sus inicios. El resultado es la que, posiblemente, sea la novela más relevante de la literatura colombiana del siglo XX, casi siempre situada en segundo plano respecto a Cien años de soledad, paradigma de la perspectiva eurocéntrica frente a la mirada de raíces africanas que ofrece Zapata Olivella. Y, sobre todo, se trata de un ejemplo de puesta en práctica de la teoría de Walter Benjamin sobre la reelaboración de la Historia de los vencidos y la irrupción en el escenario político de toda una cultura preterida durante siglos que puede ser descrita y comprendida desde la producción ensayística de Hannah Arendt. Más que exaltar o resumir la novela, la idea de la ponencia pasa por enfatizar la relectura de la historia e inclusión en el debate político de la cultura afroamericana en el mundo hispánico que pone en práctica la novela.

 

Interrogating Gender: Traditions and Opportunities in the Framing of Women’s Identities

Saturday, February 7, 2015
11:30am – 12:45pm
Greenleaf Conference Room, Jones Hall 100A
Moderated by: Dr. Supriya Nair, Department of English, Tulane University

Poto Mitan or Helpless Victim: An Analysis of Women’s Representation in Haitian Proverbs
Rachel Denney, University of Kansas

This work examines competing notions of Haitian female identity as reflected through Haitian proverbs. Using a postcolonial feminist framework, this research analyzes entries from one of the world’s largest collection of Creole proverbs to understand how gender norms are both constructed and reinforced. These proverbs present a complex picture of female identities and gender relations in Haiti, in which women appear as entrepreneurs, partners, and caregivers, experiencing and eliciting the full range of human emotion. In doing so, they contradict the stereotypical “victim narrative” of Haitian women that permeates the underlying ideology of much humanitarian assistance, as well as undermine simplistic notions about women’s strength and resiliency. This project builds on literature that examines the social construction of identity through content and rhetorical analysis.

Ancient Maya Women’s Identity: An Analysis of Costume in Pre-Columbian Maya Art
Elizabeth Haughey, Tulane University

Ancient Maya textiles were made of natural wool or cotton that was dyed with natural vegetal dyes and woven by women on a backstrap loom. Evidence for these practices can be found in ancient Maya depictions of the act of weaving (often performed by the goddess Ixchel, or Goddesses O and I), as well as Jaina Island figurines and more. While some of the methods of textile production have changed throughout time, others have largely remained the same. Evidence from the Conquest period suggests that some Pre-conquest elements in Maya costume were also retained in 19th century women’s garments and beyond. Specific designs and colors in Guatemalan textiles today can often be linked to certain towns or regions of the country, especially the woman’s huipil (blouse) and corte (skirt) (both elements that originated in ancient times), and serve to provide the wearer with a sense of identity; not only Maya identity, but a specific identity tied to birth town or town of residence. Though little evidence exists that specifically links the Post-Classic Maya period to the period of the Spanish conquest, it may be true that the element of regional identifiability in textiles has persisted since ancient times. Ancient Maya women’s costumes may be seen worn on prominent Maya women, such as Lady Xok of Yaxchilan, Lady Rabbit of Bonampak, Lady Night of Piedras Negras, and others. These ladies can be found on a variety of ancient Maya art, including painted pottery, carved stone lintels and stelae, three-dimensional figurines, and the Maya codices, from sites such as Yaxchilan, Bonampak, and Motul de San José. Analysis of such depictions of women’s costume in Pre-Columbian Maya art can be employed to discover the ways in which the Pre-Columbian Maya may have distinguished regional identity.

(Sup)Plantation Narratives: Reading Andrea Levy’s The Long Song as a Textual and Sexual Revision of The History of Mary Prince

Laura Mellem, Tulane University

This paper examines a contemporary novel, Andrea Levy’s The Long Song (2010), alongside a prominent historical text describing the experiences of an enslaved woman in the West Indies, The History of Mary Prince, originally published in 1831. In depicting the sexual encounters of enslaved women–coerced, for pleasure, and for economic or legal gain–in Jamaica in the period between the abolition of the slave trade and full emancipation (1807-1838), I argue that Levy’s novel especially responds to the deliberate silencing of aspects of Mary Prince’s sexual experiences as an enslaved woman in the original slave narrative. Ultimately, Levy’s novel reveals what Prince’s testimony does not say, that sexuality was a central tenet of enslaved women’s lives and that they did with it what they could. Writing back to the public furor that erupted over Prince’s sexual omissions, moreover, Levy pieces together the claims made about Prince and reinvents a full story of her life, and other enslaved women’s lives. In doing so, she makes clear the contradictions inherent in the unrealistic Victorian demands being made of enslaved women, including the idealization of motherhood and the insistence on women’s chastity. Unapologetically portraying an enslaved woman’s rejection of her dark-skinned child and highlighting her relationships with men, both black and white, for economic gain, Levy disrupts the binary logic of “the woman card” in the debates between abolitionists and pro-slavery supporters. Instead, she portrays a complex female character who is neither simply victim nor concubine. Reading Levy’s The Long Song alongside The History of Mary Prince allows us to fill in the blanks deliberately left in Prince’s testimony, while also appreciating, perhaps even more, the boldness of Prince’s original work.

Sexual Citizenship: Defining, Defending, and Expressing Sexuality

Saturday, February 7, 2015
1:30pm – 2:45pm
Greenleaf Conference Room, Jones Hall 100A
Moderated by: Dr. Elizabeth Steeby, Department of English, University of New Orleans

Movilh-Ization: Diversidad Collective Action Framing in Santiago’s LGBTI movement
Baird Campbell, Rice University

Santiago, Chile’s capital and home to roughly a third of Chile’s population, has both a longer established and more diverse LGBTQ social movement industry (SMI) than the rest of the country. This paper, thus, will focus specifically on my interviews with leaders from six major LGBTQ rights groups in Santiago: Movilh, MUMS, Acción Gay, Fundación Iguales, CUTS, and OTD.
Movilh presents itself as the oldest LGBTQ rights social movement organization (SMO) in Chile. While it is technically true, today’s Movilh is a different organization than the one originally founded, the latter now referred to by many as “Movilh Histórico.” This conversion from Movilh Histórico to today’s Movilh has created ruptures in Santiago’s LGBTQ SMI. According to my interviews, this rupture is largely due to personal tensions with Rolando Jimenez, Movilh’s current president and one of the initial founders of the group. In general, the activists I interviewed (with the exception of Movilh’s representative, Jaime Parada) bear a notable animosity toward Jimenez.
Through analysis of field interviews, I will assess Movilh’s political legitimacy both in the eyes of the Chilean state and in the eyes of the remaining SMOs that make up Santiago’s LGBTQ social movement industry. Although this SMI has been fragmented for years, its current step into the spotlight has aggravated tensions among the city’s various SMOs. I believe that in the coming years this inter-group dynamic will become increasingly salient as LGBTQ rights gain more traction and political clout in Chile. It is important to begin to understand this SMI now, while it is still in the early stages of societal legitimation. An understanding of the dynamics between Movilh, the government, and the rest of the SMI will be crucial to understanding LGBTQ rights in Chile in the near future.

‘Ni plus, ni moins.’: (Re) Examining Questions of Sexual Citizenship in the French Caribbean
Ryan Joyce, Tulane University

In recent years, the nascent field of Citizenship Studies has been explored, expanded and problematized throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. However, relatively little attention is given to the French Caribbean, and even less to the role and interactions of sexual marginalization and citizenship within and across that space. My project challenges this gap in scholarship by examining representations of marginalized LGBT communities within the French Caribbean surrounding the PaCS (Civil Solidarity Pacts) and same-sex marriage debates. Arguably, these political and social representations force us to reexamine what it actually means to be a “citizen” under the banner of the French republican model of universalism. More specifically, my paper gestures towards the peripheries of the French nation by addressing citizens who are doubly marginalized as sexually and racially inferior subjects. In this context, focusing on the modes of representation in popular print media, or lack thereof, of LGBT minorities in relation with the French métropole helps to frame a wider discussion about the realities of ‘sexual citizens’ in the 21st century. Indeed, rethinking the role of sexual citizenship in the French Caribbean vis-à-vis Europe reveals the contradictions and tensions inherent within the transnational, and trans-Atlantic, constructions of modernity and democracy. Extending the discussion to subaltern LGBT minorities also forces the representations of these groups to be considered and debated in the public sphere. Finally, this issue operates across a wide variety of discourses, ranging from the political, the economic, the social, the cultural, and the historical.

Gender in the City: Reading Judith Butler in Havana
Maile Speakman, Tulane University

A great deal of literature exists on exiled queer Cuban authors like Reinaldo Arenas. However, little research has been done about the theoretical, cultural, and political ties that queer and feminist Cuban authors who live in Cuba have to theorists and writers in the United States. Using historical methods, qualitative interviews, and discourse analysis, I trace the cultural currents that exist between Havana’s queer and feminist authors and gender theorists in the United States. In doing so, I highlight the delayed, fragmented, and localized nature of these exchanges and theorize that the unique temporal space that habanero writers create with North American queer theorists disrupts the logic of globalized cultural imperialism and North American queer hegemony. This analysis is in dialogue with scholars such as Emilio Bejel, Eduardo González, José Quiroga, and Ricardo Ortiz and uses a theoretical framework that includes the work of Michel Foucault, Gloria Anzaldúa, and José Muñoz.

Cartografías queer: Género y sexualidad en una comunidad del México rural
Raziel Valiño, Columbia University

Este trabajo describe como se encontró en el Morelos rural, un amplio y rico terreno donde se mapeo la geografía sexual y el espacio público y privado del pueblo. El análisis principal se ubica en el local de Mario, el que se puede describir como un bar gay al aire libre, ubicado en el centro del pueblo. La loca del pueblo es una figura conocida en el México rural, pero lo que brinda el local de Mario es que las locas y sus amigos se han apropiado y reclamado el centro del pueblo, en donde crean un contra publico queer. Las prácticas nocturnas representadas en los cuerpos y sociabilidad vista en el local de Mario, ubica lo escondido e ilícito en el centro del pueblo. Los espacios públicos queer crean un mundo cuyos contornos son expresivos y afectivos, en lugar de ser creadores de argumentos y opiniones. Este mundo y sus formas de ser mexicano, campesino, hombre y mujer hacen declaraciones publicas que pertenecen en y al pueblo, pero también son practicas de ciudadanía cultural.