Blurred Borders: Transnationalism, Identity, and Cultural Formation

Friday, February 6, 2015
10:30am – 11:45am
Race Conference Room 201, Lavin-Bernick Center (LBC)
Moderated by: Dr. Yuri Herrera, Department of Spanish and Portuguese, Tulane University

Sagas of Resistance Versus Acts of Rebellion: Alfredo Véa Jr.’s The Silver Cloud Café as an Attempt Toward “the Beyond”
Cynthia Martinez, Indiana University

“Juxtaposing the real with the fantastical, the narrative world created in Alfredo Véa Jr.’s 1996 novel The Silver Cloud Café explores the contemporary constructs of difference through history, memory, crime, and spirituality. Set primarily in modern-day San Francisco, the novel traverses the borders of space and time through its diverse cast of Mexican, Filipino, Hindu, European and African-American characters. Véa’s semi-autobiographical characters serve as representations of varying categorizations of racial, ethnic, sexual, and physical difference. As each character navigates the complexities of difference both within and outside of the confines of national boundaries and reality itself, the novel seemingly privileges its narrative space of San Francisco’s “Rafael’s Silver Cloud Café” as a place to comfortably perform the difference condemned outside of its confines.
Considering the novel’s thematic treatment of difference, this project seeks to dialogue with current criticism on The Silver Cloud Café that privileges its narrative world as a resistant response to U.S. multiculturalism as an essentializing cultural policy, proposing that the novel offers heterogeneity and hybridity as alternatives. Providing an analysis of the origin and development of the notions of heterogeneity and hybridity, I propose that Véa’s novel, rather than provide a resistant alternative within the confines of the U.S. system of cultural policy, creates rebellious moments existing outside the novel’s mimetic hegemonic system, thereby actualizing and illuminating the very limits present within current negotiations of difference. To this end, through an analysis of the novel’s genre and language, which cannot be contained by easily definable and comprehensible constructs, I suggest that, rather than an idealized heterogeneity, the novel can be aligned more closely to Alberto Moreiras’s notion of savage hybridity, offering an alternative reading to a binarizing resistance.”

Poéticas de emergencia: Rafa Saavedra, nueva ciudadanía e identidad fronteriza
Jorge Ramirez, University of California San Diego

Rafa Saavedra (Tijuana, 1967-2013), creador de la frase “Tijuana Makes me Happy” es autor de una obra narrativa que abarca dos décadas en las cuales los discursos mueven su base de la posmodernidad y el multiculturalismo hasta la necropolítica y el horrorismo. Durante los últimos años del siglo pasado y hasta el día de su muerte Saavedra, a través de su narrativa, generó un ejemplo de identidad fronteriza y promovió un tipo de ciudadanía ejercida desde la periferia. La obra de Rafa Saavedra no ha sido aun muy estudiada por diversas razones de las que destaco el que sus libros fueron publicados en editoriales independientes de poca distribución y el que su obra sea marginal en relación al centro cultural mexicano: la ciudad de México. De igual forma el concepto de ciudadanía fronteriza del norte de México ha representado históricamente un ejercicio complejo que pretendo abordar en mi ponencia. Buten Smiley (1997), Lejos del Noise (2003) y Dios me persigue (2013) son tres de los libros de relatos con los que intentaré trazar un desarrollo de identidad y ciudadanía fronteriza paralelo al intento del Estado mexicano de tomar el control cultural de esta ciudad fronteriza. Poéticas de emergencia son esas herramientas que le permiten a un autor determinado producir desde un espacio y tiempo de conflicto. En el caso de Rafa Saavedra estas poéticas versan desde los nuevos medios hasta la interdisciplinariedad, herramientas determinantes en su creación del imaginario fronterizo. La narrativa de Rafa Saavedra ejemplifica cómo se puede vivir el espacio público tijuanense con las ventajas y desventajas de abordar como escenario esta ciudad de flujos migratorios, y proyectada bajo un sistema neoliberal hacia una elusiva idea de modernidad.

Cinematic Construction of Touristic Voyeurism in Elia Sulieman’s “Diary of a Beginner”
Krista Weirich, Indiana University

Contemporary Havana is often conceptualized as a city in transition, caught in between socialism and the free market, ruins and renovation, splendor and decadence, stasis and change, age and vitality. The foreign eye seems to be perpetually fixed on this urban space, fascinated by the splendor of its ruined architecture, perplexed by the contrasting resilience and resourcefulness of its citizens, and speculative about its future. During the economic crisis of the 1990s, the government instated loosening measures to stimulate the stagnant economy. One of these, the creation of a ministry of tourism in 1994, significantly influenced Cuban cultural production by introducing a pronounced awareness of and interaction with foreign markets and the transnational construction of Cuban identity in this transitional period. The voyeuristic curiosities of foreigners who visited the island inspired widely circulated travelogues, photography books and documentaries that disseminated images of Cuba. Simultaneously, Cuban writers, filmmakers and artists found themselves entering a global market for literature that could reflect the daily Cuban “reality” that seemed so removed from that of the rest of the world. The presence of the tourist and the economic and aesthetic implications of the arrival of the tourist industry to special period Cuba have important implications for Cuban cultural production. In this paper, I analyze Elia Suleiman’s short film Diary of a Beginner, part of the collaborative transnational production 7 días en La Habana, as a transnational response that confronts problematic foreign-produced representations of Cuban identity. By studying the figures of the tourist and foreign photographer in in this short film, I explore how national identity is reconfigured vis-à-vis the foreign gaze and how the urban space of Havana is reimagined against the aesthetic of ruins that characterized much of the foreign cultural production in the 1990s and early 2000s.

Writing National Imaginaries and Indigeneity: Race, Nation, and Politics of Inclusion

Thursday, February 5, 2015
12:30pm – 1:45pm
Rechler Conference Room 202, Lavin-Bernick Center (LBC)
Moderated by: Dr. Judith Maxwell, Department of Anthropology, Tulane University

Voces Silenciadas: Una examinación de la erradicación de los pueblos originarios de argentina para establecer una idea de identidad nacional
Written by Andrea Arce-Trigatti & Florencia Beatriz Santucho
Andrea Arce-Trigatti, University of Tennessee

En la identidad nacional que perpetúa Argentina, es casi imposible identificar un pasado ligado a las comunidades originarias en el imaginario colectivo. Insistiendo en que una identidad nacional influenciada por tradiciones Europeas era el camino hacia el progreso, la generación intelectual del siglo XIX impuso una idea de civilización que se basa en suprimir toda identidad no occidental/europea. Esta idea está tan arraigada en la formación de la identidad argentina que incluso ha sido consolidada en la Constitución. En un esfuerzo para reivindicar las voces silenciadas de éstas comunidades en la construcción de la identidad nacional, nosotros examinamos los incentivos que justificaron su exclusión y de qué manera permanecen actualmente en el imaginario social: principalmente, la dicotomía civilización/barbarie y lo que ésta implica en las lógicas fundantes de las naciones en formación durante el siglo XIX. Focalizando en el papel que la campaña del desierto (1870-1884) -el genocidio más grande de los pueblos originarios de Argentina- desempeñó en el establecimiento de la identidad nacional, éste trabajo combina una investigación histórica y política con un análisis literario de dos textos formativos en la generación del ideal argentino: Facundo de Domingo F. Sarmiento y Una excursión a los indios ranqueles de Lucio V. Mansilla. Perpetuando las motivaciones políticas y sociales de la campaña contra los pueblos originarios, las obras de estos hombres “determinaron” la identidad étnica y cultural específica de quienes permanecerían como los “legítimos” representantes de la sociedad argentina. Finalmente, con este trabajo esperamos recalcar las raíces aborígenes argentinas y hacer tomar conciencia de la injusticia de que fueron víctimas, habiendo sido por completo desplazadas en la búsqueda de una identidad nacional. Hasta que aquellos que fueron excluidos sean respetuosamente reconocidos como orgullosos contribuyentes de la identidad nacional, Argentina no puede proclamarse como un país democrático y representativo de sus habitantes.

“Yawar mayu, río de sangre:” Translation and the Construction of a More Inclusive National Identity in Los ríos profundos by José María Arguedas 

Sarah Booker, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Translation plays a significant role in the incorporation and representation of the multiplicity of voices that exist across the globe and is integral to the creation of a national identity. Translation is fundamental to the creative process of José María Arguedas, who uses it to construct a multilingual narrative that reflects the criollo reality of his native Perú as well as his own experience growing up in such a society. This paper examines the use of translation within the Peruvian writer’s most often canonized and semi-autobiographical novel, “Los ríos profundos.” Translation appears on various levels: in the incorporation and explication of Quechua terms and phrases, in the bilingual transcriptions and translations of huaynos and in the overall syntactical structure of the language, which takes advantage of the metaphorical possibilities of the Quechua language while being accessible to the Spanish-speaking reader. Upon an exploration of the various elements of translation in the novel, it becomes clear that moments of translation appear in a variety of ways in the novel, but all connect the narrative to a personal, cultural and national identity and, in particular, to a past that contributes to the formation of that identity. Translation moves the narrative to the moment of creation or expression of identity, which, for the protagonist, is located at the confluence of the linguistically hegemonic, Spanish-speaking realm and the marginalized Quechua one. I argue that Arguedas’ use of translation in a way that integrates both Spanish and Quechua into his novel is pivotal to the construction of a more inclusive Peruvian national identity. The acceptance into the literary canon of “Los ríos profundos” along with other translations of indigenous texts, such as the “Popul vuh” or “Ritos y tradiciones de los Huarochiri,” puts tension on preconceived understandings of identity and opens the canon up to begin to include a multiplicity of voices.

Todos somos mexicanos: Hecho en México y la representación de los pueblos indígenas

Alejandra Marquez, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

El documental Hecho en México (2012), del director británico Duncan Bridgeman, intenta servir como una amalgama de la diversidad cultural mexicana por medio de entrevistas y música de diversos personajes. Si bien esta cinta podría parecer bien intencionada, no está de más considerar su agenda política, sobre todo teniendo en cuenta que ésta se estrenó en México unos meses después de las últimas elecciones presidenciales y que uno de sus productores es Emilio Azcárraga Jean (socio mayoritario de Televisa que fue acusado de apoyar la campaña del actual presidente, Peña Nieto). Debido a diversas implicaciones, el documental contiene un mensaje unificador, mostrando a diversas celebridades, intelectuales y pueblos indígenas, y buscando convencer a su público de que existe una mexicanidad que les une. Es por ello que este estudio analiza el proyecto de homogeneización del filme y la manera en la cual los pueblos indígenas son vistos como parte de una colectividad mexicana, restándoles individualidad y minimizando la discriminación y los problemas que éstos han sufrido desde la época colonial. Para este fin, mi marco teórico yace en textos tanto de Fausto Reinaga como de Alberto Muyolema para problematizar los conceptos de mestizaje y nacionalismo. Asimismo, para contextualizar el análisis se utiliza el discurso de Guillermo Bonfil Batalla sobre la existencia de distintos Méxicos y la jerarquía colonial que los une.

 Enlightenment Implications, Bourbon Influence and Character Construction in Comedia nueva del apostolado en las Indias martirio de un cacique: An Alternative Approach to the Life, Works and Ideology of Eusebio Vela

Megan Oleson, Vanderbilt University

A general disregard for literary works of eighteenth-century Latin America continues to characterize scholars’ attitudes towards the era. The prevailing past and current scholarly approaches to these works have portrayed them as second-rate, overly Baroque and valueless. I argue that these negative perceptions have remained stagnant not because of their innate inferiority, but rather because of many scholars’ inadequacies in correctly interpreting their intentionality. To further this assertion, I focus on the analysis of the famed eighteenth-century playwright Eusebio Vela and his play Comedia nueva del apostolado en las Indias martirio de un cacique (Comedia nueva del apostolado). I analyze the ways in which the intentionality within Comedia nueva del apostolado becomes more apparent when it is understood as a participant in the large-scale cultural indoctrination campaign promoted by the Bourbon monarchy and influenced by the Enlightenment. The primary sources I reference that allow for enlightenment-influenced elements to surface within the play include José Antonio Maravall’s Politica directiva en el teatro ilustrado and Ignacio de Luzán’s La Poética o reglas de la poesía en general y de sus principales especies. My textual analysis covers the ways in which Comedia nueva del apostolado indoctrinates Bourbon values through historical revisionism and character construction. By appropriating a foundational story and manipulating characters to reflect model subjects, Vela was able to promote an ideal Bourbon society where monarch-vassal relations were redefined, natives were given a societal role and traditionally powerful sectors of society were limited in their authoritative scope.

Deep Roots: Cultural Narrative Through Music in Brazil

Friday, February 6, 2015
9:00am – 10:15am
Rechler Conference Room 202, Lavin-Bernick Center (LBC)
Moderated by: Dr. Daniel Sharp, Department of Music, Tulane University

Songs for freedom: identidade racial e cidadania no Brasil (1884-1889)
Manuela Costa, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

Propomos trazer algumas reflexões sobre participação política de afrodescendentes nos processos da abolição da escravidão e do pós-abolição no Brasil, por meio da análise da trajetória de militância abolicionista do músico Manoel Tranquilino Bastos. As experiências vivenciadas por esse músico de ascendência africana nos permitem pensar em outras possibilidades de lutas políticas e culturais entre os anos de 1884 e 1889. A música foi extremamente importante para a inserção de músicos afrodescendentes nos debates e nas lutas pela cidadania, afirmação racial e inclusão social, que marcaram esse período. As composições de Tranquilino Bastos tornaram-se símbolos da libertação dos escravos e ainda são lembradas nas comemorações da abolição da escravidão no Brasil, podendo ser entendidas como uma opção profundamente ligada às estratégias específicas de luta dos afrodescendentes. Para tanto, recorreremos ao conceito de “cultura política” a fim de resgatar as ações políticas de novos atores, ampliar e renovar as percepções sobre direitos, afirmação racial, cidadania e participação política. Entendemos que a atuação de pessoas comuns – jornalistas, músicos, operários, libertos, “homens livres de cor” e escravos – foi essencial nos processos da abolição e do pós-abolição. O trabalho a ser apresentado se insere exatamente neste contexto, por perseguir a trajetória de um homem comum, propaganda, música e abolicionismo, ampliando a compreensão sobre as lutas políticas e raciais na história social do Brasil.

Negritude Mestiça e fronteiras identitárias: a mestiçagem como vetor da negritude na música popular
Kywza Joana Fideles Pereira dos Santos, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

A miscigenação no século XIX foi abordada no Brasil sob a influência do racialismo científico e do Iluminismo, com foco nas ambivalências do caráter da miscigenação, ou seja, tanto no viés da degradação da raça quanto no sentido de branqueamento e purificação. Na primeira metade do século XX, ainda em meio a essa ambivalência, o conceito de mestiçagem passa a figurar um projeto populista de identidade nacional, e, principalmente, depois dos escritos de Gilberto Freyre, com a celebração da mestiçagem. É preciso salientar que, a mestiçagem brasileira opera num sentido paradoxal, a celebração e a negação. Dentro dela há uma escala determinante que dita os lugares e papéis sociais, a cor, ou melhor, as nuances dessa cor. No Brasil, o campo das disputas simbólicas em torno das identidades encontrou sua tradução mais fiel na música popular. Nesta perspectiva, destacaremos seu papel na consolidação e subversão da ideia de mestiçagem. A música popular será um grande nicho de disputas, ausências e permanências das identidades racializadas. Ora a mestiçagem será acionada como valorização da cultura e/ou celebração da identidade nacional, ora como afirmação estética ou como crítica à conjuntura de pretensão democrática. Nesse sentido, tentarei, a partir da música popular, vislumbrar as diversas práticas discursivas em torno da mestiçagem através de três intérpretes (e compositores), que têm suas canções marcadas pelos discursos de mestiçagem: Clara Nunes, Martinho da Vila e Gilberto Gil. Desse modo, abordaremos os entrelaçamentos identitários, problematizando questões em torno das concepções de raça, classe e identidade e suas ressignificações no contexto da sociedade de consumo. Nesse contexto, abordaremos os diálogos diaspóricos, através de acionamentos temáticos, que constituem e delineiam os processos culturais transnacionais e trans-étnicos. Para tanto, utilizaremos a obra de artistas situados no nicho do mainstream que extrapolam os entrelaçamentos conceituais, discursivos e poéticos, tensionando as fronteiras identitárias.

“Jequibau – música e identidade paulista”

Daniel Vilela, Universidade Federal do Paraná

Diversos foram os fatores e as investidas ao longo da história brasileira que alçaram o Samba à posição de expressão musical nacional de maior representatividade dentro de um rico quadro multicultural. Diante da valorização deliberada de um gênero em detrimento das músicas locais, manifestações regionais acabaram desestimuladas e passaram a depender de iniciativas pontuais para sobreviverem. Outras, ao apresentarem inovações à vertente musical afro-brasileira que tem por principal expoente o Samba, tiveram que atravessar as desconfianças naturais do público e da crítica conservadora. A Bossa Nova, por exemplo, enfrentou os argumentos mais nacionalistas e xenófobos que a acusavam de promover a americanização da música brasileira, para posteriormente galgar seu espaço definitivo enquanto gênero. No entanto, nem todas as manifestações musicais atingiram o mesmo êxito bossanovista ao proporem inovações à tradição historicamente construída. Este é o caso do Jequibau. Gênero criado por Mário Albanese e Cyro Pereira em meados da década de sessenta, na cidade de São Paulo, o Jequibau se constrói em um compasso quinário (de cinco tempos) que se soma ao típico “balanço” da música brasileira. Contudo, sua divulgação foi prejudicada por um contexto político e social conturbados, pela difícil inserção da música essencialmente instrumental e de caráter inovador na indústria midiática e pelas inevitáveis comparações ao Samba e à Bossa Nova, que geraram as alcunhas de “Samba em Cinco” e “Bossa em Cinco” e lhe atribuíram papel secundário em pesquisas, sendo que meu mestrado é o primeiro a se dedicar exclusivamente ao estudo deste tema. O fato é que o Jequibau surgiu da necessidade, enxergada por seus criadores, de uma expressão musical paulistana que traduzisse e sintetizasse a pluralidade que é a marca da cosmopolita São Paulo. Assim, este trabalho se dedica a refletir acerca de como as características desta cidade são identificadas no gênero, que hoje possui sua data celebrada anualmente em 13 de Agosto.

Identity in Art: Constructions and Negotiations of Race

Friday, February 6, 2015
10:30am – 11:45am
Rechler Conference Room, Lavin-Bernick Center (LBC)
Moderated by: Dr. Mia Bagneris, Department of Art History, Tulane University

The Other Shore: reviewing the exodus of Cuban visual artist within the Mariel boatlift
Jimena Codina, Tulane University

In 1980, between the months of April and October, about 125,000 Cubans emigrated legally from Cuba to the United States through the port of Mariel. This event impacted not only the history of Cuba but also the history of Cuban immigration, and the relations between the United States and the island. Among the thousands of Cubans who emigrated, many were artists: writers, musicians, and visual artists (mainly painters). Some of these visual artists became visible in the context of galleries, art exhibitions and journals in the United States, specifically in Miami. Despite the differences in the background and scope of these artists, and despite the contrasts in their respective careers once they emigrated to the United States, they were bound together by the common experience of immigration to the U.S. through Mariel, they all came to form the Generation of Mariel, and this, in turn, impacted the content of their work and their artistic career. Considering the processes and effects of the Mariel boat-lift on the Cuban artist community will help to understand better the intersection of grand historical processes and the production of culture, and how these artists negotiate both the grand historical narratives and their own migratory experiences through their work.

100 Years of Lies: Images of Brazil’s Unified Black Movement
Briana Royster, Ohio University

Using posters created by Afro-Brazilian activists in 1988, this presentation will provide a preliminary investigation into the U.S. influences on the Unified Black Movement (MNU), while revealing Brazil’s unique history of race relations and how activists captured that history within its political posters. Scholars have studied the U.S. Civil Rights Movement from many perspectives, including its leaders, the role of women and students, and its place as a catalyst for later movements in the U.S. like the Women’s Rights Movement and the Chicano Movement. Less studied are the transnational effects of the Civil Rights Movement in other countries such as Brazil. Brazil and the United States have a history of cross-cultural exchange, one that includes the social and political movements of people of African descent. African American activists in the United States were one inspiration for the Unified Black Movement (MNU) during the last quarter of the twentieth century in Brazil. Brazil’s contemporary black movement began in the 1970s in an effort to end the myth of Brazil as a “racial democracy.” A key component to the MNU’s strategy involved visually representing the importance of black heritage and culture. With a reliance on their rich African history and images from the US Black Power Movement, Afro-Brazilian activists created posters and artwork to foster a consciousness about the racial problems in Brazil. Although motivated by what they saw in the United States, activists also remained aware of many other movements, including African independence movements. The MNU developed an artistic campaign unique to Brazil’s history of racial hegemony and worked diligently to improve the conditions of Afro-Brazilians. Using interviews and artwork (mostly in the form of posters) this presentation will elaborate on the similarities and differences between the two sets of images, giving rise to an analysis of the movements themselves.

Dissecting Identity through Dissolution: Guillermo Gomez-Pena and the Performance of the Poetic Overstatement
Alexandra Santana, Tulane University

The purpose of this project is to examine how contemporary performance artist Guillermo Gómez-Peña uses a mixture of invented language and aesthetic media as deconstructive instruments in his artwork in order to question rigid notions of social identity. The project is also an examination of his use of the internet as an aesthetic medium, both literally and figuratively, in his performances. The use of the non-identity (or anonymity) of a digitized subject in his work allows for a more reflective examination of subaltern and marginalized social identities, and thus provides a possible space for the mobilization of marginalized artistic audiences. More specifically, however, I question if the conceptual fracture of social identity through digital means truly attempts to “fight against cultural, artistic, and political isolationism”? (La Pocha Nostra) Through a formal analysis of several key performances, I argue that Guillermo Gómez-Peña’s use of an imagined, yet recognizable poetic cyberlanguage dissolves the borders, both physical and intangible, between traditional boundaries of cyberculture and social identity.

On the Move: The Construction of Cultural Identities

Friday, February 6, 2015
4:00pm – 5:15pm
Rechler Conference Room 202, Lavin-Bernick Center
Moderated by: Dr. Josefa Salmón, Department of Languages and Cultures, Loyola University

Ride to Live, Live to Ride: Motorcycle Dispatches from Maceió
Katherine Layton, University of Texas at Austin

Though motorcycles are commonly associated with risk taking behavior, male aggression and rebellious independence, the truth is much more complex. These are totalizing tropes constructed through state and other majority attitudes towards motorcyclists, which in fact reveal underlying social anxieties about counter-hegemonic attempts to engage with normative structures. The ubiquity of these stereotypes contributes to transnational imaginaries and subsequent physical infrastructure that marginalizes motorcycles, among other non-automobiles, on and off-the-road. Over several months of field work, I investigated the ways motorcyclists in the Northeastern city of Maceió – AL, Brazil negotiate the city space in the face of these prejudices, in a daily struggle to stay alive. I collected anecdotal testimonials about on and off-the-road structures that influence motorcycling practice in Maceió and the reciprocal tactics that motorcyclists employ in order to navigate them. I engaged in participant observation and conducted interviews among motorcyclists (motorcycle clubs, motoboys & mototaxistas, riders in general) as well as individuals otherwise related to motorcycling practice (officials from police, health, agriculture, and labor sectors).
Using the information I gathered and an anthropological theoretical framework, I explore two major struggles for citizenship and survival in which these motorcyclists are engaged: (1) the guarantee of free mobility, access, safety, security, and inclusion on Maceió’s roads and highways; and (2) the legalization of professional motorcycling activities including delivery and taxi services (motoboy & mototaxi), which are currently permitted by federal law in Brazil, but titularly prohibited at state and municipal levels in Maceió, Alagoas (though still widely practiced). This paper discusses the alternative realities of motorcycling, and the unconventional assertions of citizenship that their riders employ, in the face of normalized exclusion.

Reinterpreting Regionalisms: The Use of the Terms “Kolla” and “Camba” in a Rural, Andean Town in Bolivia
Jennifer North, University of Miami

The Andes today is a region in motion, as people permeate regional divides and images slip through borders. Migration and international media force contact between the urban and the rural, between different ethnic groups, socioeconomic classes, and nationalities. This study considers the interpretation of a Peruvian ethnic comedy program, El Cholo Juanito y Richard Douglas, in a rural Quechua community in Bolivia as a tool for understanding the construction of ethnic identities in this dynamic context. El Cholo Juanito y Richard Douglas, produced in Cuzco, Peru, comically portrays the conflict-ridden relationship between a Quechua migrant to the city and a self-declared non-indigenous urbanite. Despite its ethnic slurs and portrayal of the very real discrimination many indigenous migrants face, the program enjoys widespread popularity in Andean Bolivia. By considering the ways by which Quechua-speaking villagers in Bolivia judge and interpret this program, this study illuminates the continued negotiation of ethnic, regional, and national identities in the region. Specifically, the use of the Bolivian regional identifiers “Kolla” (highlander) and “Camba” (lowlander) is examined. In the Andes, ethnic groups are crossed by national borders, and each nation is further divided by deep regionalisms. This study reveals the ways in which Quechua-speaking Bolivians expand and adapt the Bolivian regional identifiers “Kolla” and “Camba” to interpret their own and others’ ethnic identities on both a transnational and localized scale.

Canto y pluma: Mexican Corridos Amid the Great Depression (1929-1949)
Michelle Salinas, University of California, Los Angeles

This study attempts to create a more holistic historical account of the Mexican and Mexican American communities’ experiences in the United States during Great Depression (1929-1939). Abraham Hoffman contextualizes the Great Depression in the Mexican and Mexican American community by discussing the repatriation. He describes repatriation as an initiative led by both federal and private community committees that organized to send immigrants back to their countries as a supposed attempt to relieve public resources and the labor market (1974). I center Mexican and Mexican American perspectives as expressed through alternative media such as Mexican-origin music and Spanish language publications to discuss a less visited account of the Great Depression in the United States. Thus, I analyze six corridos written between (1929-1949) found in the Strachwitz Frontera Collection of Mexican and Mexican American Recordings digital archive. I define corridos as a traditionally Mexican song form reinterpreted in the United States Southwest to express the Mexican diasporic experience. In addition, I explore relevant articles from the Los Angeles local Spanish language newspaper La Opinión. I examine these primary sources through Lindsay Perez Huber’s (2010) Latina/o critical theory (LatCrit) and the concept of racist nativism to demonstrate how this alternative media provides collective historical counterstories to the mainstream accounts given by government and Anglo American media. Time can be rewritten: critical archaeology, onto-politics, and the un-extirpation of idols